Hélène Perdicoyianni-Paléologou (NewYork)
The uses of αὐτός and ipse in Origen's Homilies on Jeremy, as translated by St. Jerome*
This study of the uses of in Origen's Homelies on Jeremy and its corresponding ipse in St. Jerome's translation allowed to us to demonstrate the overwhelming frequence of their anaphoric use, whether it be pure or nuanced by the functions of enchérissement or exclusion. In contrast, the uses indicating individualization is quite limited. On the other hand, the examination of and ipse allowed us to determine the concept of ipséité and brought to light their function as determiners. Finally, the indistinct use of ipsius, eius and the direct reflexive suus in the genitive, to translate the genitive possessive , point out the symmetry in their anaphoric uses in early Christian period.
0 In the archaic and classical Greek and Latin periods, and ipse (on the various meanings of in Ancient Greek, see Taillardat (1983), Sadoulet (1982). On the use of ipse in Late Latin texts, see Christol (1992); on the origin of ipse, see Jiménez Zamudio (1989) possess three principal uses:
i) the enchérissant use in which, like the French même, and ipse declare as true, within a coherent class of facts, the most improbable fact and therefore suggest the truth of the whole Martin (1975: 233); their presence indicates the existence of other objects, persons, predicates etc. possessing the property of which there is mention in the utterance Anscombre (1973: 42). and ipse also comprise a aussi Anscombre (1973: 42). Consider for example:
declares as true the most improbable fact within the class of the generals, i.e. their obodience to the law, and therefore suggests that all citizens are subjects to the authority of the law (On the interpretation of this use, see also Biraud (1990: 96, 1991: 195-196)).
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Liv. 8. 7. 5:
Ipse introduces the indication of the most improbable fact, the presence of Juppiter in human fights, and implies the presence of other persons, i.e. the consuls, in the same act.
ii) the exclusive use wherein, like the French même, and ipse make explicit and reinforce an idea of exclusion Anscombre (1973: 41). They delimit the meaning of the substantive to which they refer, and incorporate it within their own limits, thus eliminating all possible ambiguity of signification Martin (1975: 229). This use frequent in the passages where and ipse are followed by a personal pronoun.
Ter., Ad., 266:
In both passages, the meaning of exclusion conveyed by and ipsum can be paraphrased by "you and no other".
iii) a use indicating the individualization of what is denoted by the substantive to which and ipse refer. Therefore, they concurrently "restrict the substantive's denotation within its own limits and ... consider it in its entirety" Biraud (1990: 98, 1991: 199). The following example illustrates this use:
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The use of indicates the individuality of the subject, distinguished among other potential agents of the same act.
The existence of those three principal uses of and ipse leads us to determine the semantism of ipséité as following: "one" + "enchérissement, restriction/exclusion/separation, differenciation/individualization".
Besides these three uses of and ipse expressing the notion of ipséité, we should note their anaphoric function. According to Ducrot-Todorov (1972: 358), "a segment of discourse is termed anaphoric if one must refer to another segment of the same discourse in order to interpret it (even literally)." 1
This anaphoric use appears in Hom. Il., VIII. 204, where functions as anaphoric of :
The segment to which the anaphoric term refers is called interpretant (Ducrot-Todorov 1972: 358, 1983: 281), semantic source (Tesnière 1988: 87), referant (Dubois 1965), Kesik (1989: 30), antecedent and at last controler of the anaphoric. When anaphoric and antecedent appear in the same phrase (whether simple or complex), the anaphoric relation established between them is called "interphrasal". On the other hand, the anaphoric relation is "extraphrasal".
In this article, we propose to study the extent to which the uses of and ipse cited above persist in Origen's Homilies on Jeremy, as translated by St. Jerome and whether they possess other functions, such those of anaphora or deixis. We will also examine the distribution of their usages as well as their correspondence from Greek to Latin.
1 The property of being enchérissant is very little attested to in and ipse. In fact, we singled out but a sole occurrence.
"Therefore, as soon as possible, since the inhabited earth is raised up by the wisdom of God, even we ourselves want our inhabited earth as having fallen (into sin) to be raised up."
St. Jerome, VIII 338: Idcirco, quantum possumus, quoniam orbis terrarum in sapientia Domini erigitur, laborare nitamur et ipsi, ut habitata anima nostra a sapientia Dei erigatur.
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"Therefore, as soon as possible, since the inhabited earth is raised up by the wisdom of God, even we ourselves make an effort to labor so that our earthly life be raised up."
In those passages, the property of being enchérissant is confirmed by the use of coordinating elements such and et. According to traditional grammarians, such as Dräger (1878), Nägelsbach (1888), Kühner-Stegman (1955), the use of et ipse is not found in Classical Latin. Only since Livy (59 B.C.-17 A.D.), wherein et is also used in the meaning of etiam, does et ipse appears. We have to note that in the authors of the classical period ipse is found with quoque, etiam, or alone.2
2 There is no use in our texts of and ipse such that expresses exclusion. However, we pointed out 5 occurrences3 which we usually consider as illustrating the separative use, although this meaning is not sufficient to determine in depth the semantic content of and ipse. In fact, this use appears in the utterances wherein to be / ipse signifies "être un X pur et sans mélange" Biraud (1990: 97).
In Origen XVII 457, the Savior is identified with ("justice itself") ("truth itself") ("sanctification itself") ("endurance itself") (the identification of Christ to those notions is a metonymy of effect; see also Origen, VIII 337 / St. Jerome, VIII 338. On the compound nouns + nouns, see Chantraine (1968-1980 s.v. ), terms which are translated in latin by ipse denoting Christ + noun in the function of attribute (ipse iustitia, ipse veritas, ipse sanctificatio, ipse sustentatio. In both passages, the Savior is not only just, true, saint, and patient, but also "the optimal actualization of the definition of those notions" Biraud (1990: 97).
Origen (XVIII 469) and St. Jerome (XVIII 470) use respectively the syntactical turns and ipsum Dominum to indicate that they consider Christ in his absolute essence (Christ in person).
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St. Jerome, XVIII 470: Sed ipsum Dominum audiamus narrantem ac dicentem.
In Origen, VIII 337 and St. Jerome, VIII 338, and ipse follow one another and form a chain rhetorical repetition. and ipse denote Christ and they are followed by terms expressing the moral and spiritual notions which Christ represents in himself. The authors are thereby enabled to emphasize Christ's various characteristics which are specific to him and nobody else.
St. Jerome, VIII 338: Ipse sapientia eius, ipse fortitudo, ipse sanctificatio, ipse iustitia, ipse sanctitas et redemptio, ipse, ut ad praesens veniam, etiam prudentiam.
In conclusion, and ipse imply the exclusion of others, they make Christ different from others and, finally, they actualize his being in its entirety.
We have to study certain particular, noteworthy uses of anaphora. In Origen (XIV 412) function as anaphoric of a nominal syntagm (), while in St. Jerome (XIV 411) ipse is used as anaphoric of a single word (Jesus)
Ipse enim est qui in perhibentibus divinitati testimonium judicatur.
and ipse figure in copulative propositions with identificator meaning (on the issue of identification, see Kleiber (1984: 71, 1994: 74-76) and function as subject to the verbs / est, while the nominal syntagm and the relative proposition qui in perhibentibus divinitati testimonium judicatur function as attribute to the subject.
In Origen, XVI 445 and V 320, the anaphorics follow one another in the spoken chain and emphazise the notion of possession. In V 320, the antecedent to which the first anaphoric refers is a prepositional syntagm while in XVI 445 it is word referring to (XVI 444).
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By contrast, in order to translate the idea of possession expressed by St. Jerome uses either ipsorum, eorum or the adjective suus.6 The translation of by suus, sua, suum is quite frequent in St. Jerome. In V 319, is translated in Latin by cordis sui,which is anaphorised by a chain of anaphoric operators made up of identical lexemes (ipsorum ... ipsorum)
Egreditur itaque, velut ignis, indignatio Domini adversus eos qui Deo non sunt circumcisi, adversus eos qui praeputium cordis sui non deposuerunt, et non erit qui exstinguat a facie adinventionum ipsorum. Ignis iste materiam habet nequitiam adinventionum ipsorum.
Sui functions as direct reflexive and maintains a relation of co-reference with the antecedent. According to traditional grammar, we distinguish between two main forms of reflexive, the direct reflexive when "the anaphoric relation is to the subject of the same sentence which contains the reflexive, and the indirect reflexive when the reflexive occurs in an embedded clause and the anaphoric relation is to an antecedent outside of it (generally the main subject)" Bertocchi-Casadio (1980: 21). We ought to note that in all occurrences denoting the notion of possession, the reference is made to persons other than the subject.
In XVI 446, the first anaphoric is translated by eorum. Then follows a chain of anaphoric operators made of ipsorum, (abominationum) suarum, and (inquitatibus) suis.
Et retribuam illis primum duplices iniustitias eorum, et peccata ipsorum in quibus contaminaverunt terram meam, in morticinis abominationem suarum, et iniquitatibus suis, quibus impleverunt haereditatem meam.
In this passage we observe that the reference is made to persons other than the subjects. This explains, first, the use of the non-reflexive pronoun eorum. Its anaphora made by ipsorum indicates the variety of their interchangeable use, something that classical Latin excludes Swiggers (1995: 273). The interchangeability of is and ipse also figures in St. Jerome, V 303: ... ipsorum labores ("their labors")... eorum peccata; ("their sins") and XVIII 474-475: ... eius ... ipsum .
Before we finish our study on the anaphoric use of and ipse, we ought to point out a passage in which the anaphora is made by hypernymy, i.e. the transition from a lexical specific unit to a general one, such that the latter, which is a superordinate term, includes the former, a subordinate word Chrystal (1997: 186), Matthews (1997: 166); Berrendonner (1986: 263); Reichler-Béguelin (1995: 68-69).
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St. Jerome, X 362: ipsum quod nunc interpretatur volumen prophetae.
The expression constituted of + article + a lexical general unit, functions as anaphoric to , a lexical specific unit denoting the title of the book written by Jeremy. This expression is translated in Latin by the pronoun ipsum followed by a relative proposition, wherein volumen functions as predicate of the utterance (the predicate is taken to be the basic element of the utterance, Chrystal 1997: 303).
Most of the anaphoras made by and ipse are extraphrasal, except those made by a genitive denoting the possession that is substituted in certain Latin passages by the adjective suus, sua, suum, and which are constantly interphrasal, and characterized by the short length of the textual space, set by the relation between the anaphoric and its antecedent.
4 We detected four occurrences in which is translated by ipse. Both function as anaphorics of either a word or a nominal syntagm and possess at the same time an enchérissant meaning.
"(Lord) he himself ... is also examined."
St. Jerome XV 431:
"(Lord) he himself ... is also examined."
St. Jerome, IV 294:
St. Jerome, XV 474:
The length of the textual space, set by the relation between the anaphoric and its antecedent, is short; the anaphoras are persistently extraphrasal, except for the one in Origen, IV 293 / St. Jerome, IV 294.
In all passages, and ipse are preceded respectively by and et or etiam. The coordinating conjunctions and et, which are interchangeable with etiam, are logical operators of enchérissement: they introduce the indication of the most improbable fact within a class of facts Denniston (1934: art. ). At the same time, they are used to imply the involvement of others in the same action.
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In Origen, XV 432 / St. Jerome, XV 431, the reference is to the of Christ. / et ipse express the idea that his is the least probable fact, involving at the same time the of other human beings. In this sentence, the intensifier himself ( / ipse) has the property of being enchérissant. This means that it entails aussi and yet also the force of even. According to Fauconnier's pragmatic probability scale Fauconnier (1975); see also Bertocchi (manuscript), even modifies the noun to which it refers, and places it at the lowest point in the scale, i.e. it modifies it as the least probable. / et (ipse) imply first, that the terms whose meaning of enchérissant they reinforce are the lowest on the probability scale, and second, that the is more expected of other human beings than of Christ.
5 The anaphoric use of and ipse implying the exclusion of others appears in the following passage:
St. Jerome, XIX 514: Ipsorum est regnum coelorum.
In these passages, both pronouns figuring in the beginning of the utterance are in reference to / qui nunc iugent.
The anaphoras are extraphrasal and the length of the textual space, set by the relation between the anaphoric and its antecedent, is long.
The use of / ipsorum prevents an interpretation according to which someone else, other than / qui nunc iugent could have joined the kingdom of Heaven. This meaning can be paraphrased by "themselves and no other".
6 and ipse function as anaphoric implying individualization in Origen, XIII 401 / St. Jerome, XIII 402.
Ipsum Jesum qui rogabat pariter, et praestabat ea quae erant in pacem, perdidit anima peccatrix, ...
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figures in a nominal group where it is set in a determinative position outside of the sequence containing article + Noun.
/ Ipsum Jesum are used as anaphorics of nominal syntagms ( / Jesum Filium Dei).The anaphoras are transphrasal and their antecedents are placed nearby in the spoken chain. At the same time, / ipsum maintain the individualization of the person (Christ) who is denoted by the substantive to which they refer by delimiting it and considering it in its entirety.
So far, we have studied those anaphoras referring to a word or a nominal syntagm. However, we singled out a passage wherein the antecedent of and ipse, does not figure in these two forms in the preceding text.
St. Jerome, XII 387:
The expressions / ex ipsis sermonibus function as conceptual anaphoras or anaphoras de dicto Reichler-Béguelin (1988: 26), (1989: 319). In fact, they do not refer to a propositional content but to the act of speaking made by the preceding utterance ( / Audite et auribus percipito).
7 In conclusion, and ipse function mostly as anaphorics. The anaphora is whether pure or multiply nuanced by the functions of enchérissement, exclusion, or individualization. Regarding the function of pure enchérissement, it is rare. Therefore we assert that the semantism of ipséité is complete in both Origen and St Jerome because it covers all three meanings: "one" + "enchérissement, restriction/exclusion/separation, differenciation/individualization". On the other hand, and ipse are determiners and often subjects in copulative propositions. The translation of the possessive genitive by ipsius, eius, and the direct reflexive sui, demonstrates St. Jerome's liberty to use those pronouns / adjectives as well as the absence of asymetry in their anaphoric uses, which is unusual in the classical period.
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* We express our heartfelt thanks to Dr. François Bovon, Frothingham Professor of the History of Religion at Harvard Divinity School, for inviting us to participate in the sholarly meetings and the life of the New Testament Department as well as to the Doctoral Dissertation Seminar of this Department where this research was undertaken.
6 Cf. Origen, IV 285 / St. Jerome, IV 284; Origen, IV 293 / St. Jerome, V 292; Origen, V 296 / St. Jerome, V 295; Origen, V 297 / St. Jerome, V 298; Origen, V 509 / St. Jerome, V 510; Origen, V 312 / St. Jerome, V 311; Origen, V 320 / St. Jerome, V 319; Origen, VII 329 / St. Jerome, VII 330.